On the movie: all quiet on the Western Front.

On Berlin: Nobel Prizes 1902 - 1935 Literature 4 [next highest 2], Physics 13 [next highest is 4].


Ch. 16 1932

In the midst of the failure to form a stable government (5 elections in this year!), there were threats of military dictatorships, general stikes and civil war.

Hindenburg re-elected over Hitler, but only with the support of those for whom he had contempt, namely the Social Democrats and the moderate centrist parties [359]. Hitlers use of new media: film, radio and the airplane to every city. Anti-Nazi propaganda and pro Nazi and another. Hitler and the workingclasses; the savior

Significant steps:

  1. Two years of ruling by presidential decree--what Germany needs, says Schleicher, is a strong man [363]
  2. Removal of ban on Strom Troopers --over 300,000 strong [359]
  3. Undermining of the Prussian state government; Papen rules by decree in the name of "law and order" assumes the governance, and the supreme court tolerates it [366]

Hitler: as head of largest party was entitled to form a government, his mission, to destroy Marxism, but note Hindenburg's attitude: [369] "his conscience and his duties to the Fatherland could permit him to give the entire governing power exclusively to the National Socialist movement, which wished to make one-side use of it."

Exodus begins...writers, artists, cinema, science 371 Grosz, Koestler, Einstein, Dietrich

Ch 17 1933

Papen urges the Nazis be taken into the govt (Jan), but Hitler demanded full power to 'restore order' and expel all socialists and communists 379. Hindenburg resists, but a deal is worked out with Papen and Hitler.

Hitler appointed and the cultural purge begins almost immediately. Not so much against jews, but against independent minded intelligensia 385. Read also on book burning.


Read on 390. on the collapse.

NOTE: both the Nazis and their enemies believed that each was promoting 'the good life' and 'civility'; the difference is that the first began from the pespective of being 'enlightened' [knowledge of the way the world should be] and the other from the perspective that in the here and now all one can do is find procedures to the 'more perfect union' .